夜游宫·记梦寄师伯浑


雪晓清笳乱起,梦游处、不知何地。铁骑无声望似水。想关河:雁门西,青海际。
睡觉寒灯里,漏声断、月斜窗纸。自许封候在万里。有谁知,鬓虽残,心未死!

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【注释】

【简析】

 陆游有大量抒发爱国主义激情的记梦诗,在词作里也有。这首《夜游宫》,主题正是这样。师伯浑是陆游认为很有本事的人,是他在四川交上的新朋友,够得上是同心同调,所以陆游把这首记梦词寄给他看。上片写的是梦境。一开头就渲染了一幅有声有色的关塞风光画面:雪、笳、铁骑等都是特定的北方事物,放在秋声乱起和如水奔泻的动态中写,有力地把读者吸引到作者的词境里来。让读者一下子把联想融于作者的描绘之中。中间突出一句点明这是梦游所在。先说是迷离惝恍的梦,不知道这是什么地方;然后才又进一步引出联想—— 是在梦中的联想;这样的关河,必然是雁门、青海一带了。这里,是单举两个地方以代表广阔的西北领土。但是,这样苍莽雄伟的关河如今落在谁的手里呢?那就不忍说了。那作者为何有这样的“梦游”呢?只因王师还未北定中原,收复故土。这压着作者的心病,迟迟未能解除。作者深厚的爱国感情,凝聚在短短的九个字中,给人以非恢复河山不可的激励,从而过渡到下片。

  下片写梦醒后的感想。一灯荧荧,斜月在窗,漏声滴断,周围一片死寂。黑夜因作者的心事变得悲凉,而冷落的环境,又反衬出作者报国雄心的火焰却在熊熊燃烧。自许封候万里之外的信念,是何等地执着。人老而心不死,自己虽然离开南郑前线回到后方,可是始终不忘要继续参加抗金事业。“王师北定中原日,家祭无忘告乃翁”, 即使是死了,也念念不忘收复故土。如此爱国热情,是多么伟大!“有谁知”三字,表现了作者对朝廷排斥爱国者的行径的愤怒谴责。梦境和实感,上下片呵成一气,有机地融为一体,使五十七字中的笔调,具有壮阔的境界和教育人们为国献身的思想内涵。

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